The Kentucky, Ohio and West Virginia Radiocarbon Database

Robert F. Maslowski, Charles M. Niquette and Derek M. Wingfield*

Published in 1995, the article that follows appeared originally in the West Virginia Archeologist (Volume 47:1-2). It is provided here with the permission of the journal’s Editor in an effort to make the data accessible in a magnetic format and to reach a larger audience.

As noted in the Editor’s Page of that issue of the West Virginia Archeologist,

the radiocarbon database represents many years of cooperation between professional and amateur archeologists as well as universities, agencies and private consulting firms. It should be stressed that even though this is a final publication this database should be viewed as a working document that will be continuously updated and corrected…While reviewing this issue one will notice many blanks and a few question marks. I just noticed that a number of TL dates were also included and its too late to delete them. We encourage you to fill in these blanks and send the data to Chuck Niquette who will make the necessary corrections and keep the database current. For starters we need the names of two radiocarbon labs to complete Table 3. We could not find radiocarbon laboratories for Lab numbers C and X. These may be typographical errors or represent early laboratories that have subsequently gone out of business. Time periods and components have to be filled in for numerous sites, especially in Ohio. This information should be supplied by those people who ran the dates, those who published the dates or others who are familiar with the data and publications. Radiocarbon dates will be useful for developing local chronologies only if good associations of diagnostic artifacts can be demonstrated. This is why the authors and others associated with this project urge the readers to check the original publications for associations and interpretations when using these dates. The vast majority of the 500+ archeological sites in this database are unstratified and multicomponent so a radiocarbon date from a good charcoal sample gives us little information unless it has a good association with diagnostic artifacts.

The Editor and authors thank those dozens of archeologists who have contributed to the database over the past several years. Special thanks are due to Shaune Skinner, Kitty Butterworth, Marin McFarland and Bruce Aument for compiling the Ohio database which represents the largest database in the tri-state area. Special thanks are also due to Dave Martin who spent several weekends and countless hours formatting the database for final publication in order to have it available for the Eastern States Archeological Conference in Huntington, October 24-27, 1996.

Database Components

Abstract

A total of 1919 radiocarbon dates for archeological sites and objects in Kentucky, Ohio and West Virginia has been compiled by the Council For West Virginia Archaeology. These data represent most radiocarbon dates available for the region up to August 1996. The database is presented in a tabular format in ascending order of radiocarbon age. The database includes site numbers, site names, components, time periods, lab numbers, radiocarbon age, sigma, calibrated age and references.

Introduction

Radiocarbon dating has been an important tool for interpreting the archeological record since the technique was first developed by Willard F. Libby and his team of associates at the University of Chicago in 1947. Prior to the growth of cultural resource management (CRM) in the 1980’s, the majority of radiocarbon dates were obtained by the academic community (Table 1). The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and other federal agencies as well, contributed to an explosion of new archeological associated data and corresponding absolute dates when it began including requirements for radiocarbon dating in their CRM contracts. CRM also provided the impetus for the development of commercial radiocarbon laboratories. At first, radiocarbon dates were processed by university research laboratories; however, the vast majority of dates run during the last decade were processed by commercial laboratories (Tables 2 and 3).

History of the Kentucky-Ohio-West Virginia Database

The first radiocarbon database in the Kentucky-Ohio-West Virginia tri-state area was West Virginia’s; the list was published by Edward V. McMichael in 1965. Twelve years later, this database had been expanded to 73 dates by E. Thomas Hemmings (1985). Hemmings critically evaluated the accuracy of each date and constructed a cultural chronology for the state based on this database (Hemmings 1985). During this time, Robert F. Maslowski set up a radiocarbon database for the Huntington District Corps of Engineers, which eventually included over 150 dates for various district projects in Kentucky, Ohio and West Virginia. By 1987, Maslowski (1988) included a listing of 189 West Virginia radiocarbon dates from 65 archeological sites in West Virginia as an Appendix to a bibliography of West Virginia archeology. This list also contained 8 dates on botanical samples and 11 dates on geological samples.

O. H. Prufer and D. H. McKenzie (1967) published a list of radiocarbon dates for Ohio in 1967, and updated the list in their 1975 reprint. As more radiocarbon dates were reported, Ms. Shaune Skinner of Archaeological Services Consultants, Inc., in Columbus, Ohio, began appending the dates to the database. Her efforts were then supplemented by Mr. Bruce Aumet, a former employee who currently works for the Ohio Department of Transportation.

Kentucky’s first radiocarbon database was compiled by Christopher A. Turnbow in 1981. He assembled a register of over 300 dates for Kentucky. Mr. Charles M. Niquette of Cultural Resource Analysts, Inc., in Lexington, Kentucky, obtained versions of both the West Virginia and Kentucky databases from Dr. Robert F. Maslowski in the early 1990’s. Mr. Jonathan P. Kerr of Cultural Resource Analysts, Inc.’s Lexington, Kentucky office, and Mr. C. Michael Anslinger of the firm’s Hurricane, West Virginia office, assisted in maintaining the database as Mr. Niquette appealed to colleagues in the tri-state area to provide him with new dates as they became available.

Early in 1996, Cultural Resource Analysts, Inc., agreed to combine databases from the tri-state area and prepare the united database for publication and to publish it as a joint publication of the Council For West Virginia Archaeology and the West Virginia Archeological Society. Mr. Derek M. Wingfield of Cultural Resource Analysts, Inc.’s Lexington, Kentucky office organized and prepared the database for final publication.

Methodology

The following radiocarbon dates were calibrated using a computer software program called CALIB (Version 3.03c). The program was written and distributed by Ms. Minze Stuiver and Ms. Paula J. Reimer of the Quaternary Isotope Lab at the University of Washington in Seattle, Washington. Before the radiocarbon dates could be calibrated, certain decisions had to be made in order for the program to yield desirable information.

CALIB was set to calibrate atmospheric samples only. Dataset 1, which is limited to 0 to 18,360 BP, is based on bidecadal tree-ring data and smoothing spline of marine coral data. The probability distribution around the calibrated age intercepts were calculated versus the calibrated age. The resulting age ranges were corrected at both 68.3% and 95.4% confidence levels. The 68.3% confidence level contains the area under the distribution curve for the one sigma calibrated age range. One sigma equals the square root of the product of the sample’s standard deviation plus the curve standard deviation. The 95.4% confidence level contains the area under the distribution curve for the two sigma calibrated age range. Two sigma equals the two times the square root of the product of the sample’s standard deviation provide an estimate of the importance of each age range. The 95.4% confidence was used to increase the probability of the date range for the samples. Due to size constraints for publication, these ranges were not published; however, they are available, from Cultural Resource Analysts, Inc., upon request. A lab error multiplier of 1.0 was entered for all samples. The samples were calibrated in terms of calendar years Anno Domini (AD), Before Christ (BC) and years before present (BP). The results were added to a Paradox 7 database containing the samples’ site, provenience, and reference information. The database was exported to Excel 7 for publication production.

Listed below are the titles of the database’s columns and a brief explanation of the column: Site Number: This column provides the trinominal number assigned to the site.

Site Name: This column shows the name of the site.

Time period: This column indicates the temporal period assignment to the site or component.

Component: This column gives cultural assignments based on diagnostic artifacts or features.

Lab Number: This column provides the number assigned to the carbon 14 sample by the processing laboratory.

C14 Age: This column shows the carbon 14 age, in years before present, assigned to the sample by its processing laboratory.

Sigma: This column gives the error assigned for each sample by the lab.

Date: This column provides the carbon 14 age in terms of AD and BC.

Calibrated Age: This column indicates the calibrated age of the sample in terms of AD and BC.

Calibrated BP Age: This column gives the calibrated age of the sample in terms of years before present.

References: This column provides a reference for the sample, generally the reference where the date was originally published or a secondary reference where the date has been listed. Unpublished dates are referenced by the agency, firm or person who was responsible for submitting the sample for analysis.

Biases and Limitations

This radiocarbon database, compiled from sources throughout the region, contains a number of inherent biases (evident in Tables 4, 5, 6 and 7) which should be mentioned. A geographical bias obviously exists in the database. For example, the data show that Ohio has reported more dates than Kentucky and West Virginia combined. It is likely that this represents a higher frequency of Federally mandated CRM projects in Ohio compared to Kentucky and West Virginia.

Another bias evident in the database is a temporal bias. This bias is demonstrated by the greater number of Late Prehistoric dates reported in all three states. The greater number of Late Prehistoric radiocarbon dates may be the result of many factors, including the general increase in Native American populations by this time, better preservation on Late Prehistoric sites, or a higher frequency of Late Prehistoric sites on landforms most commonly affected by development projects.

The temporal bias of this database is demonstrated further by the fact that there are no Paleo-Indian radiocarbon dates reported in West Virginia and very few reported in Kentucky and Ohio. The problems of low site visibility and poor preservation of Paleo-Indian sites are faced by all researchers in of eastern North America.

Originally, the West Virginia Archaeological Council planned to evaluate all the radiocarbon dates as to presumed accuracy, cultural and temporal component and to prepare a series of revised cultural chronologies based on accurate radiocarbon chronologies. This would have delayed the project several years and it was decided to publish the database with references as a tool which could be used by other researchers. Researchers are urged to check the published references and determine for themselves if the context, temporal and cultural affiliations are accurate for their particular needs. Researchers also are urged to notify the authors at the address below of any errors encountered in the database.

Conclusions

Projects such as these are not static, rather they are a dynamic process that has no clear-cut ending. With this in mind, it is the goal of the authors to make the database available on the World Wide Web (http://www.crai-ky.com) and to request the support of archeological researchers in the tri-state area. As new dates are generated, the basic data described in the following database should be sent to Mr. Niquette at the following e-mail address: cmniquette@aol.com or mailed to him at Cultural Resource Analysts, Inc., 143 Walton Avenue, Lexington, Kentucky 40508. Data also may be faxed to Mr. Niquette. His fax number is (606) 254-3747. In this manner, the database will be updated continually and remain current.

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1986 Fort Ancient Chronology and Settlement Evaluation in the Great Miami Valley, Volume 2: Excavations and Chronology. Submitted by the Cincinnati Museum of Natural History, Cincinnati, Ohio. Submitted to the Ohio Historic Preservation Office, The Ohio Historical Society, Columbus, Ohio.

Cowan, C. Wesley, H. Edwin Jackson, Katherine Moore, Andrew Nickelhoff, and Tristine L. Smart

1981 The Cloudsplitter Rockshelter, Menifee County, Kentucky: A Preliminary Report. Southeastern Archaeological Conference Bulletin 24:60-76.

Crane, H. R.

1956 University of Michigan Radiocarbon Dates I. Science 124(3224):664-672.

Crane, H.R. and J.B. Griffin

1958 University of Michigan Radiocarbon Dates III. Science128:1117-1123.

1959 University of Michigan Radiocarbon Dates IV. Radiocarbon 1:173-198.

1961 University of Michigan Radiocarbon Dates V. Radiocarbon 3:102-125.

1962 University of Michigan Radiocarbon Dates VII. Radiocarbon 4:183-203.

1963 University of Michigan Radiocarbon Dates VIII. Radiocarbon 5:228-253.

1964 University of Michigan Radiocarbon Dates IX. Radiocarbon 6:1-24

1966 University of Michigan Radiocarbon Dates XI. Radiocarbon 8:268-269

1968 University of Michigan Radiocarbon Dates XII. Radiocarbon 10(1):61-114.

1970 University of Michigan Radiocarbon Dates XII. Radiocarbon 12(1):161-180.

1972a University of Michigan Radiocarbon Dates XIV. Radiocarbon 14(1):155-194.

1972b University of Michigan Radiocarbon Dates XV. Radiocarbon 14(1):195-222.

Creasman, Steven D.

1994a Upper Cumberland Archaic and Woodland Period Archaeology at the Main Site (15BL35), Bell County, Kentucky. Contract Publication Series No. 94-56. Cultural Resource Analysts, Inc., Lexington.

1994b Archaeological Investigations at the Mills Site (15BL80), Bell County, Kentucky. Contract Publication Series 94-66. Cultural Resource Analysts, Inc., Lexington, Kentucky.

Crusoe, Donald L.

1976 Excavations in the proposed KY 80 right of way, Pulaski and Laurel Counties, Kentucky. Ms. on file, Kentucky Department of Transportation, Frankfort.

Dancey, William S.

1977 Correspondence from Geochronology Laboratory, University of Georgia. on file Department of Anthropology, The Ohio State University. Columbus, Ohio.

1988 The Community Plan of an Early Late Woodland Village in the Middle Scioto River Valley. Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology 13(2):223-258.

1991 A Middle Woodland Settlement in Central Ohio: A Preliminary Report on the Murphy Site (33LI212). Pennsylvania Archaeologist 61(2):37-72.

DiBlasi, Philip J.

1987 Rogers Cave, Glyph Passage. National Register of Historic Places nomination form. On file, Kentucky Heritage Council, Frankfort.

Davis, R.S., G.M. Pratt and D. Wilkie

1976 A Prehistoric Village on Kelly’s Island. The Explorer 18(3):11-19.

Dobbs, Clark A. and Don W. Dragoo

1976 Prehistoric Cultural Resources of Section Two, Southwestern Jefferson County Local Flood Protection Project: Test Excavations. Environmental Consultants, Inc., Dallas.

Doershuk, John F.

1992 Archaeological Investigations of the Proposed North American Stainless Water Discharge Pipe Trench across Site 15CL44, Carroll County, Kentucky. On file with USACE – Louisville District.

Dorwin, John T., Edward Henson, Larry Meadows, and Donald T. Warholic

1970 Archaeological Investigations of the Deep Shelter, Cave Run Reservoir Area, Rowan County, Kentucky. Ms. on file, Museum of Anthropology, University of Kentucky Lexington.

Dragoo, Don W.

1963 Mounds for the Dead: An Analysis of the Adena Culture. Annals of Carnegie Museum No. 37, Pittsburgh.

Drooker, Penelope B.

1993 Radiocarbon Dating of Corn from the Madisonville and Hahn’s Field, Ohio, Sites. Submitted by author, State University of New York at Albany. Submitted to Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Duerksen, K. and J.F. Doershuk

1994 Report on the Archaeological Data Recovery at 33BU477, A Late Maple Creek Phase Occupation in Butler County, Ohio. Submitted by Cultural Resources Program, 3D/Environmental, Cincinnati, Ohio. Submitted to Kiesland, Inc., Hamilton, Ohio.

Dunnell, Robert C.

1962 The Hughes Farm Site (46OH9), Ohio County, West Virginia. West Virginia Archeological Society Publication Series 7.

1966 Archaeological Reconnaissances in Fishtrap Reservoir, Kentucky. Department of Anthropology, Yale University, New Haven.

1972 The Prehistory of Fishtrap, Kentucky. Publications in Anthropology No. 75. Yale University, New Haven.

1980 Duvall: A Monongahela Settlement in Central Ohio County, West Virginia. West Virginia Archeologist 29 (1):1-37.

Dutcher, J.

1988 C-14 Dating Results from the Glenford Stone Mound Site, 33PE3. Ohio Archaeologist 38(3):24-26.

East, T.

1966 In Progress Report: Excavations at the Crosscutter Site 46PU161, Pendleton County, West Virginia. Skelly and Loy, Inc., Monroeville.

East, T.C., M. Sams and C. Beckman

1996 46MS180 Phase III Data Recovery. Skelly and Loy, Inc., Monroeville.

Edging, Richard

1990 The Turk Site: A Mississippi Period Town in Western Kentucky. Report on file, Kentucky Heritage Council, Frankfort.

Edging, Richard (editor)

1985 Archaeological Investigations at the Turk Site (15Ce6), Carlisle County, Kentucky. Western Kentucky Project Report No. 3. University of Illinois, Department of Anthropology, Urbana.

Essenpreis, Patricia S.

1982 The Anderson Village Site: Redefining the Anderson Phase of the Fort Ancient Tradition of the Middle Ohio Valley. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation. Department of Anthropology, Harvard University. Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Evans, Martin C.

1994 Personal communication

Fairchild, G.

1982 Excavation of a Late Early Woodland Hearth at the Welch Site (33AT56): Located within the SR 33 Athens Bypass Corridor (ATH-33-17.70). Submitted by Department of Archaeology, The Ohio Historical Society. Columbus, Ohio. Submitted to Bureau of External Contracts, Ohio Department of Transportation. Columbus, Ohio.

Fassler, Heidi

1987 Guilfoil: A Middle Fort Ancient Village in Fayette County. In Current Archaeological Research in Kentucky: Volume One, edited by David Pollack, pp. 154-187. Kentucky Heritage Council, Frankfort.

Fenton, James P. and Richard Jefferies

1991 The Camargo Mound and Earthworks: Preliminary Findings. 1991:40-55. In The Human Landscape in Kentucky’s Past, Site Structure and Settlement Patterns. Edited by Charles Stout and Christine Hensley. Kentucky Heritage Council, Frankfort, Kentucky.

Fenwick, Jason M.

1976 Archaeological Survey and Testing in the Proposed Yatesville Reservoir, Lawrence County, Kentucky. Ms. on file, Museum of Anthropology, University of Kentucky, Lexington.

Fergusson, G.J. and W.F. Libby

1963 UCLA Radiocarbon Dates II. Radiocarbon 5:1-22.

Fisher, D.C., B.T. Lepper and P.E. Hooge

1994 Evidence for Butchery of the Burning Tree Mastodon. In The First Discovery of America: Archaeological Evidence of the Early Inhabitants of the Ohio Area. Edited by W.S. Dancey, pp. 43-57. The Ohio Archaeological Council, Inc., Columbus, Ohio.

Fitzgibbons, Philip T., James M. Adovasio, and J. Donahue

1977 Excavations at Sparks Rockshelter (15J019), Johnson County, Kentucky. Pennsylvania Archaeologist 47(5).

Frankenberg, Susan R. and Grace E. Henning

1993 Phase III Data Recovery Investigations of the Cotiga Mound (46MO1), Mingo County, West Virginia. Draft Report prepared by GAI Consultants, Inc. for West Virginia Division of Highways, Charleston.

Freidin, Nicholas

1996 Personal communication

Foster, Eugene

1975 Bone and Luxury Stone Artifacts from (15Pi307 and 313). Student paper, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green. Ms. on file, Office of State Archaeology, University of Kentucky, Lexington.

Fuller, John W.

1981 Developmental Change in Prehistoric Community Patterns: The Development of Nucleated Village Communities in Northern West Virginia. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Washington, University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor.

Gardner, Paul S.

1987 New Evidence Concerning the Chronology and Paleoethnobotany of Salts Cave, Kentucky. American Antiquity 52(2):358-367.

Gatus, Thomas W. and John B. Yonk

1982 Preliminary Investigations at the Cox Site (15CA50). Paper presented at the 39th Annual Meeting of the Southeastern Conference, Memphis. 1991:113-116. In Studies of Kentucky Archaeology. Edited by Charles Hockensmith Kentucky Heritage Council, Frankfort, Kentucky.

Genheimer, Robert A.

1988 An Archeological Investigation of the Mandel Site (46MS150) Gallipolis Locks and Dam Replacement Project, Mason County, West Virginia. Contract Publication Series 88-24. Cultural Resource Analysts,. Inc., Lexington.

Goldstein, L., Editor

1980 Current Research-Great Lakes Region. American Antiquity 45(2):355-371.

1982 Current Research-Great Lakes Region. American Antiquity 47(3):656-665.

1983 Current Research-Great Lakes Region. American Antiquity 48(3):617-626.

Gowan, K. and C. Jackson

1995 An Assessment Survey of 33MA145, A Multicomponent Prehistoric Site to be Impacted by the Proposed Bridge Replacement and Realignment of County Road 34 (Cemetery Pike) over the Big Darby Creek and Sugar Run in Darby Township, Madison County, Ohio. Submitted by Archaeological Services Consultants, Inc., Columbus, Ohio. Submitted to Sticklen-Belsheim and Associates, Columbus, Ohio.

Gramly, R.M., E. Richards and D. Lehberger

1985 Excavations at the Yant Mound, Stark County, Northwestern Ohio. Ohio Archaeologist 35(2):13-16.

Grandstaff, B. and G. Davis

1985 Another Red Ocher Discovery in Ross County. Ohio Archaeologist 35(3):26-28.

Graves, J.R.

1984 The Indian Hills Site (33WO4): Archaeological Reflections on a Protohistoric Assistaeoronon Town. Unpublished MA and ED Thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Toledo. Toledo, Ohio.

Graybill, Jeffery R.

1979 A Preliminary Report on Recent Archeological Excavations in Mason County, West Virginia. The West Virginia Archeologist 28: 1-23.

1984 The Eastern Periphery of Fort Ancient. Pennsylvania Archaeologists 54(1-2): 40-50.

1987 Personal Communication with Dr. Robert F. Maslowski.

Greber, N’omi

1977 Report of the 1975 Excavations at the Nashport Mound (33MU15), Dillon Lake, Ohio. Submitted by Department of Archaeology, The Ohio Historical Society, Columbus. Submitted to the National Park Service, United States Department of the Interior.

1983 Recent Excavations at the Edwin Harness Mound, Liberty Works, Ross County, Ohio. Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology, Special Paper 5, The Kent State University Press, Kent, Ohio.

Gremillion, Kristen

1992 Personal communication with Charles M. Niquette.

1996 Late Woodland Utilization of the Rock Bridge Shelter in Wolfe County, Kentucky. In, Current Archaeological Research in Kentucky, Volume Four, edited by Sara L. Sanders, Thomas N. Sanders and Charles Stout. Kentucky Heritage Council, Frankfort: ppg. 17 – 31..

Grubb, T.C. and A.J. Allen

1980 The Hunt Site (33BL16) Part V:Burials and Interpretation. Ohio Archaeologist 30(3):26-28.

Guilday, John F., Harold Hamilton and Allen D. McCrady

1973 The Welsh Cave precaties Platygonus and associated fauna, Kentucky Pleistocene. Annals of Carnegie Museum 44:249-320, Pittsburgh.

Gundy, B.J., B.A. Meyers and D.R. Bush

1993 Phase IV Cultural Resource Investigation of the Proposed LAK-Reeves Road Project (33LA115 and 33LA159), City of Eastlake, Lake County, Ohio. Submitted by Center for Cultural Resource Research, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Submitted to Burgess and Niple, Limited, Akron, Ohio.

Hand, Robert B.

1992 A National Register Evaluation of the Elk Creek Rockshelter (15LR24), Letcher County, Kentucky. Contract Publication Series 92-84. Cultural Resource Analyst, Lexington, Kentucky.

Hand, Robert B., Jonathan P. Kerr, Myra A. Hughes and Charles M. Niquette

1988 A Phase One Survey and National Register Evaluations of 46PU4 and 46PU5A, Winfield Locks and Dam Replacement Project, Putnam County, West Virginia. Contract Publication Series 88-30. Cultural Resource Analysts, Inc., Lexington.

Hanson, Lee H., Jr.

1964 Preliminary Excavations at the Slone Site in Pike County, Kentucky. Ms. on file, Museum of Anthropology, University of Kentucky, Lexington.

1970 The Jewell Site, Bn21, Barren County, Kentucky. Miscellaneous Paper No. 8. Tennessee Archaeological Society.

Hanson, Lee H., Jr. and Robert C. Dunnell

1964 Archaeological Survey of the Green River Reservoir. Ms. on file, Museum of Anthropology, University of Kentucky, Lexington.

Hardesty, Donald L.

1964 The Biggs Site, a Hopewellian Complex in Greenup County, Kentucky. Probes, pp. 14-21. University of Kentucky, Lexington.

Hargrave, Michael L.

1981 Woodland Ceramic Chronometry and Occupational Intensity at the Carrier Mills Archaeological District, Saline County, Illinois. Unpublished Masters thesis, Department of Anthropology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale.

1982 Woodland Ceramic Decoration, Form and Chronometry in the Carrier Mills Archaeological District. In The Carrier Mills Archaeological Project, vol. 2, edited by Richard W. Jefferies and Brian M. Butler, pp. 1233-1288. Research Paper No. 33. Center for Archaeological Investigations, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale.

Haskins, Valerie A.

1988 The Prehistory of Prewitts Knob, Kentucky. Master’s thesis presented to Graduate School of Arts and Sciences of Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri.

Haskins, Valaire A. and Nicholas P. Herrmann

1989 Shell Mound Bioarchaeology: An Overview of Past Research from the Green River Region, and Preliminary Observations on New Data from the Reed Site, 15BT10. Paper presented at the 46th Annual Meeting of the Southeastern Archaeological Conference, Tampa.

Hemmings, E. Thomas

1977 The Fairchance Site: Middle Woodland Settlement And Subsistence in the Upper Ohio Valley. West Virginia Archeologist 26:46-58.

1984 Fairchance Mound and Village: An Early Middle Woodland Settlement in the Upper Ohio Valley. West Virginia Archeologist 36(1): 3-51.

1985 West Virginia Radiocarbon Dates and Prehistory. West Virginia Archeologist 37(2):35-45.

Henderson, A. Gwynn

1992 Personal communication with Charles M. Niquette.

Henderson, A. Gwynn and David Pollack

1985 The Late Woodland Occupation at the Bentley Site. In Woodland Period Research in Kentucky, edited by David Pollack, Thomas Sanders, and Charles Hockensmith, pp. 140-164. Kentucky Heritage Council, Frankfort.

1990 The Bentley Site (15Gp15). In Continuity and Change: Fort Ancient Cultural Dynamics in Northern Kentucky, edited by A. Gwynn Henderson. Report on file, Kentucky Heritage Council, Frankfort.

Henderson, A. Gwynn and David Pollack (continued)

1996 New Field: An Early Madisonville Horizon Site in Bourbon County, Kentucky. In, Current Archaeological Research in Kentucky, Volume Four, edited by Sara L. Sanders, Thomas N. Sanders and Charles Stout. Kentucky Heritage Council, Frankfort: ppg. 169 – 233.

Henderson, A. Gwynn and Christopher A. Turnbow

1987 Fort Ancient Developments in Northeastern Kentucky. In Current Archaeological Research in Kentucky: Volume One, edited by David Pollack, pp. 205-224. Kentucky Heritage Council, Frankfort.

Henderson, A. G., B. S. Ison, C. R. Ison, J. A. Railey and J. Rossen

1985 Archaeological Investigations at the Green Sulphur Springs Site Complex, West Virginia. University of Kentucky, Archaeological Report 108.

Herbstritt, James T.

1988 A Reference for Pennsylvania Radiocarbon Dates. Pennsylvania Archaeologist 58(2):1-29.

Hockensmith, Charles D.

1984 The Johnson Site: A Fort Ancient Village in Scott County, Kentucky. In Late Prehistoric Research in Kentucky, edited by David Pollack, Charles Hockensmith, and Thomas Sanders, pp. 85-104. Kentucky Heritage Council, Frankfort.

Hockensmith, Charles D. (editor)

1991 Studies of Kentucky Archaeology. Kentucky Heritage Council, Frankfort, Kentucky.

Hothem, L.

1988 The Mount Pleasant Excavation. Ohio Archaeologist 38(1):12-15.

Hughes, Myra A. and J.P. Kerr

1990 A National Register Evaluation of selected archeological sites in the Gallipolis Mitigation Site at Greenbottom, Cabell County, West Virginia. Cultural Resource Analysts, Inc., Lexington, Kentucky.

Hughes, Myra A. and Charles M. Niquette (eds)

1991 Late Archaic Archaeology in the Lower Kanawha Valley: Excavations at the Corey Site (46PU100), Putnam County, West Virginia. Contract Publication Series 91-71. Cultural Resource Analysis, Inc., Lexington.

Hussey, Edward W.

1981 A Pithouse at the Bartlett-Bird Site(46-Wd-35). West Virginia Archeologist 31:38-42.

Immel, Elsie A., J. Kime and B. Barkes

1981 Archaeological Investigations of the Pearsall Site, 33BL37, and a Sensitive Area for the BEL-148-21.50 Project in Belmont County, Ohio. Submitted by Department of Archaeology, The Ohio Historical Society, Columbus, Ohio. Submitted to the Division of Planning, Ohio Department of Transportation, Columbus.

Ison, Cecil R.

1988 The Cold Oak Shelter: Providing a Better Understanding of the Terminal Archaic. In Paleoindian and Archaic Research in Kentucky, edited by Charles D. Hockensmith, David Pollack, and Thomas N. Sanders, pp. 205-220. Kentucky Heritage Council.

1990 Personal communication with David Pollack. In The archaeology of Kentucky: past accomplishments and future directions. Kentucky State Historic Preservation Comprehensive Plan Report No. 1. Edited by David Pollack, Kentucky Heritage Council, Frankfort.

1992 Personal communication with Charles M. Niquette.

Ison, Cecil R. and Beth S. Ison

1985 The Carroll Shelter: A Multi-Component Rockshelter in Northeastern Kentucky. In Woodland Period Research in Kentucky, edited by David Pollack, Thomas Sanders, and Charles Hockensmith, pp. 125-138. Kentucky Heritage Council, Frankfort.

Ison, Cecil R., Christopher A. Turnbow, and Jimmy A. Railey

1982 Archaeological Investigations at Sites 15CK126 and 15CK127 within the J. K. Smith Power Station, Clark County, Kentucky. Archaeological Report No. 59. Department of Anthropology, University of Kentucky, Lexington.

Jackson, K.E., R.G. Meyers and M.J. Steinkamp

1990 Phase IV Archaeological Data Recovery at Site 33CT525, Clermont County, Ohio. Submitted by Gray and Pape, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio. Submitted to Burgess and Niple, Limited, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Janzen, Donald E.

1977 An Examination of Late Archaic Development in the Falls of the Ohio River Area. In For the Director: Research Essays in Honor of James B. Griffin, edited by Charles E. Cleland, pp. 123-143. Anthropological Paper No. 61. University of Michigan, Museum of Anthropology, Ann Arbor.

1978 Personal communication. In Cultural Radiocarbon Determinations of Kentucky. Occasional Papers in Anthropology No. 3. Department of Anthropology, University of Kentucky, Lexington. Written by Christopher A. Turnbow.

Jefferies, Richard W., John Scarry, and Tom Sussenbach (editors)

1990 Kentucky Archaeology Newsletter. Program for Cultural Resource Assessment, University of Kentucky, Lexington.

Jones, Emory E., Jr.

1987 Archeological Investigations at the Snidow Site (46MC1), Mercer County, West Virginia. West Virginia Archeologist 39(1):1-20.

Kardulias, P.N. and J.R. White

1985 Analysis of the Kern Effigy (33WA372) Lithics: A Fort Ancient Affiliation. Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology 10(1):3-19.

Kerr, Jonathan P. and Steven D. Creasman

1995 Phase III Investigations at the Martin Justice Site (15PI92) Pike County, Kentucky. Contract Publication Number 95-24. Cultural Resource Analysts, Inc., Lexington.

Kimball, Larry R.

1993 Personal communication with Charles M. Niquette.

Kimball, Larry R. and Glyn DuVall

1991 Phase II Archaeological Investigations at the Industrical Park at Wurtland, Greenup County, Kentucky. With contributions by Emanuel Breitburg and Andrea Shea. Prepared for Tribble and Richardson Engineers, Inc. and Diamond Engineering.

Knudsen, Gary D.

1985 Testing of Vandalized Sites, Is It Worth It? Two Woodland Examples. In Woodland Period Research in Kentucky, edited by David Pollack, Thomas Sanders, and Charles Hockensmith, pp. 93-109. Kentucky Heritage Council, Frankfort.

1987 Personal communication with David Pollack. In The archaeology of Kentucky: past accomplishments and future directions. Kentucky State Historic Preservation Comprehensive Plan Report No. 1. Edited by David Pollack, Kentucky Heritage Council, Frankfort.

Kozarek, S.E.

1989 Phase I Through Phase IV Archaeological Investigation of the Hillsboro Industrial Park Project Area, Hillsboro, Highland County, Ohio. Submitted by Gray and Pape Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio. Submitted to Woolpert, Columbus, Ohio.

Kreisa, Paul P.

1989 Second-Order Communities in Western Kentucky: Site Survey and Excavations at Late Woodland and Mississippi Period Sites. Western Kentucky Project Report No. 7. Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois, Urbana.

1992 Personal communication

Lawrence, William L.

1985 A Descriptive Study of the Ceramic Assemblage from Savage Cave (15LO11), Logan County, Kentucky. In Woodland Period Research in Kentucky, edited by David Pollack, Thomas Sanders, and Charles Hockensmith, pp. 85-92. Kentucky Heritage Council, Frankfort.

1996 A New Radiocarbon Date from the McLeod Bluff Site (15HI1), Hickman County, Kentucky. Kentucky Organization of Professional Archaeologists Newsletter, 3(2):2.

Ledbetter, R. Jerald and Lisa D. O’Steen

1991 The Grayson Site, Phase III Investigations of (15CR73), Carter County, Kentucky. Southeastern Archeological Services, Inc. Athens, Georgia.

Lee, A.M.

1986 Archaeological Recovery of Early, Middle and Early Late Woodland Remains from the Excavation of the Stanford Knoll Site in the Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area. Submitted by Cleveland Museum of Natural History. Cleveland, Ohio. Submitted to Midwestern Archaeological Center, National Park Service. Lincoln, Nebraska.

Lee, A.M. and W. Fienga

1982 The Bass Lake Site. Paper Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Midwestern Archaeological Conference, Columbus, Ohio.

Lepper, B.T.

1989a A Radiocarbon Date for a Hopewellian Habitation Site Associated with the Newark Earthworks. Ohio Archaeologist 39(4):12-13.

1989b An Historical Review of Archaeological Research at the Newark Earthworks. Journal of the Steward Anthropological Society 18(1 & 2):118-140.

1994 Locating Early Sites in the Middle Ohio Valley: Lessons from the Manning Site (33CT476). In The First Discovery of America: Archaeological Evidence of the Early Inhabitants of the Ohio Area. Edited by W.S. Dancey, pp. 145-156. The Ohio Archaeological Council, Inc., Columbus, Ohio.

Lepper, B.T. and R.W. Yerkes

1995 Hopewellian Occupations at the Northern Periphery of the Newark Earthworks: The Newark Expressway Sites Revisited. In Ohio Hopewell Community Organization. Edited by W.S. Dancey and P.J. Pacheco, In Press. The Kent State University Press, Kent, Ohio.

Lewis, R. Barry

1986 Why Are Early Woodland Base Camps So Rare? In Early Woodland Archaeology, edited by Kenneth Farnsworth and Thomas E. Emerson, pp. 596-597. Kampsville Seminars in Archaeology Vol. 2. Center for American Archaeology, Kampsville, Illinois.

1991 The Early Mississippian Period in the Confluence Region and Its Northern Relationships. In Cahokia and the Hinterland: Middle Mississippian Cultures of the Midwest. Edited by Thomas E. Emerson and R. Berry Lewis, pp. 274-294. University of Illinois Press, Urbana.

Libby, Willard F.

1952 Radiocarbon Dating. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

1955 Radiocarbon Dating, Second Edition. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Linck, Dana

1987 Personal communication with Dr. Robert F. Maslowski.

Lovis, W.A., Editor

1984 Current Research-Great Lakes Region. American Antiquity 49(3):632-641.

1985 Current Research-Great Lakes Region. American Antiquity 50(3):670-683.

1986 Current Research-Great Lakes Region. American Antiquity 51(3):635-641.

MacDonald, George F.

1985 A Paleo-Indian Site in Central Nova Scotia. Persimmon Press, Buffalo.

Marquardt, William H.

1977 Current State Research: Kentucky: Shell Mound Archaeological Project. Southeastern Archaeological Conference Newsletter 19(2):4.

Marquardt, William H. and Patty Jo Watson

1974 The Green River, Kentucky, Shellmound Archaeological Project. Paper presented at the 73rd Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, Mexico City.

Marwitt, J.P., B.Davis, S. Batug, V. Albaneso, T. Yocum and R. Stallings

1984 Test Excavations at the Island Creek Village Site (33AD25). Report submitted to Huntington District, United States Army Corps of Engineers.

Maslowski, Robert F.

1984 Protohistoric Villages in Southern West Virginia in Upland Archeology in the East, Symposium 2. Cultural Resources Report No. 5, edited by Michael Barber. Forest Service Southern Region, United States Department of Agriculture.

1985 Woodland Settlement Patterns in the Mid and Upper Ohio Valley. West Virginia Archeologist 37(2):23-34.

1988 Bibliography of West Virginia Archeology 1978 to Spring 1987. Report submitted to the Department of Culture and History, Historic Preservation Unit Cultural Center, Charleston.

1991 Huntington District Radiocarbon Inventory. U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntington, West Virginia.

1997 Personal Communication with Charles M. Niquette.

Maslowski, Robert F. and David L. Dawson

1980 Childers: A Terminal Late Woodland Villiage. West Virginia Archeologist 29(2).

McDowell-Loudan, E. E.

1981 The Glen Haven Site: An Interim Report, 1980. West Virginia Archeologist 32:49-50. Notes & Comments. Jefferson County. Woodland.

McDowell-Loudan, E. E. and G. Loudan

1983 Glen Haven Site, 46-Jf-5: 1983 Interim Report. Proceedings: Middle Atlantic Archaeological Conference, Rehoboth Beach, Delaware, pp.28-35.

McGraw, Betty J.

1977 Personal communication with David Pollack. In The Archaeology of Kentucky: Past Accomplishments and Future Directions. Kentucky State Historic Preservation Comprehensive Plan Report No. 1. Edited by David Pollack, Kentucky Heritage Council, Frankfort.

1992 Personal communication with Charles M. Niquette.

1993 Personal communication with Charles M. Niquette.

McIlhany, Calvert

1990 Personal communication with David Pollack. In The Archaeology of Kentucky: Past Accomplishments and Future Directions. Kentucky State Historic Preservation Comprehensive Plan Report No. 1. Edited by David Pollack, Kentucky Heritage Council, Frankfort.

McKenzie, Douglas H.

1975 The Graham Village Site: A Fort Ancient Settlement in the Hocking Valley, Ohio. In Studies in Ohio Archaeology, Revised Edition. Edited by O.H. Prufer and D.H. McKenzie, pp. 63-97. The Kent State University Press, Kent, Ohio.

McMichael, Edward V.

1968 Introduction to West Virginia Archeology. West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey Educational Series. Morgantown.

McMichael, Edward V. and Oscar L. Mairs

1969 Excavation of the Murad Mound, Kanawha County, West Virginia. Report of Archeological Investigations No. 1, West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey, Morgantown.

Meyers. T.P., Editor

1977 Current Research. American Antiquity 42(4):641 and 643.

Mocas, Stephen T.

1976 Excavations at the Arrowhead Farm (15Jf237). University of Louisville Archaeological Survey, Louisville.

1977 Excavations at the Lawrence Site, 15Tr13, Trigg County, Kentucky. University of Louisville Archaeological Survey Report, Louisville.

1986 Personal communication with David Pollack. In The archaeology of Kentucky: past accomplishments and future directions. Kentucky State Historic Preservation Comprehensive Plan Report No. 1. Edited by David Pollack, Kentucky Heritage Council, Frankfort.

Moore, David G.

1982 Test Excavations at Indian Fort Mountain, Berea, Kentucky. Paper presented at the 39th Annual Meeting of the Southeastern Archaeological Conference, Memphis.

Mortine, Wayne A. and D. Randles

1981 Excavation of Two Adena Mounds in Coshocton County, Ohio. Occasional Papers in Muskingum Valley Archaeology, 12. The Muskingum Valley Archaeological Survey, Zanesville, Ohio.

1988 Ceramics from the Tumblin Site, A Fort Ancient Village in Coshocton County, Ohio. Ohio Archaeologist 38(3):39-44.

Morton, James

1977 Excavations of Mound B, A Hopewellian Site in the Muskingum Valley. Ohio Archaeologist 27(1):22-24.

1977 Radiocarbon Dates from Late Prehistoric Sites in the Muskingum Valley. Occasional Papers in Muskingum Valley Archaeology, 2. In The Richards Site and the Philo Phase of the Fort Ancient Tradition. Edited by J. Carskadden and J. Morton, pp. 14-16. The Muskingum Valley Archaeological Survey, Zanesville, Ohio.

1984a Toward a Late Woodland Taxonomy for the Central Muskingum Valley. Ohio Archaeologist 34(1):41-47.

1984b The Long Acre Sites: Cole/Baldwin-like and Philo Phase Interaction in the Central Muskingum Valley. Ohio Archaeologist 34(4):7-11.

1989 Middle and Late Woodland Components at the Philo II Site, Muskingum County, Ohio. Ohio Archaeologist 39(2):61-69.

Morton, James and Jeff Carskadden

1975 Excavation of an Archaic Open Site. Ohio Archaeologist 25(2):16-19

1987 Test Excavations at an Early Hopewellian Site near Dresden, Ohio. Ohio Archaeologist 37(1):8-12.

Moxley, Ronald W. and James D. Bloemker

1985 The Man Site: A Preliminary Report on a Late Prehistoric Village Site in Logan County, West Virginia. West Virginia Archeologist 37(2): 3-22.

Murphy, James L.

1971a The Lyman Site (33LA2), Lake County, Ohio. Pennsylvania Archaeologist 41(3):112-125.

1971b The Fairport Harbor Site, Lake County, Ohio. Pennsylvania Archaeologist 41(3):26-41.

1974a Daniel Boone’s Button. The Explorer 16(2):12-17.

1974b A Radiocarbon Date from the Reeve Site, Cuyahoga County, Ohio. Ohio Archaeologist 24(1):6-7.

1975 An Archaeological History of the Hocking Valley. The Ohio University Press, Athens, Ohio.

1976 Excavation of the Bob Evans Mound, Gallia County, Ohio. Ohio Archaeologist 26(2):30-31.

1989 An Archaeological History of the Hocking Valley, Revised Edition.The Ohio University Press, Athens, Ohio.

1993 A Phase IV Mitigation of a Portion of 33BL36, A Woodland Site in Washington Township, Belmont County, Ohio. Submitted by author, Columbus, Ohio. Submitted to Cravat Coal Company, Cadiz, Ohio.

Murphy, James L. and G. Graham

1982 The Blue Valley Site: A Baum Fort Ancient Component near Lancaster, Ohio. Ohio Archaeologist 52(3):26-29.

Murphy, James L. and Irene Stehli

1977 Age and Provenience of Adena Bone Combs. Ohio Archaeologist 27(3):9-13

Nance, Jack D.

1985 Personal communication with David Pollack. In The Archaeology of Kentucky: Past Accomplishments and Future Directions. Kentucky State Historic Preservation Comprehensive Plan Report No. 1. Edited by David Pollack, Kentucky Heritage Council, Frankfort.

1986 The Morrisroe Site: Projectile Point Types and Radiocarbon Dates from the Lower Tennessee River Valley. Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology 11:11-50.

1987 Research in the Lower Tennessee-Cumberland-Ohio Region. Southeastern Archaeology, Volume 6, Number 2, Winter 1987, pg. 97. Allen Press, Lawrence.

Nass, John P., Jr.

1987 Use-Wear Analysis and Household Archaeology: A Study of the Activity Structure of the Incinerator Site, An Anderson Phase Fort Ancient Community in Southwestern Ohio. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation. Department of Anthropology, The Ohio State University. Columbus, Ohio.

1990 Phase IV Data Recovery at the Sabre Farms (33RO385) Multicomponent Site in Ross County, Ohio. Submitted by Archaeological Services Consultants, Inc., Columbus, Ohio. Submitted to Bucher, Willis and Ratliff, Chillicothe, Ohio.

Niquette, Charles M.

1985 A Phase I Archaeological Assessment of the Inez By-Pass and a Phase II Evaluation of the Calloway Site (15MT8), Martin County, Kentucky. Contract Publication Series 85-20. Cultural Resource Analysts, Lexington.

Niquette, Charles M. and Randall D. Boedy

1986 The Calloway Site (15MT8): A Transitional Early to Middle Woodland Camp in Martin County, Kentucky. Contract Publication Series 86-12. Cultural Resource Analysts, Lexington.

Niquette, Charles M. and Gary D. Crites

1993 Late Woodland Zea Mays at the Vintroux Sites, Putnam County, West Virginia. West Virginia Archeologist 45(1&2):32.

Niquette, Charles M. and Jonathan P. Kerr

1993 Late Woodland Archeology at the Parkline Site, Putnam County, West Virginia. West Virginia Archeologist 45(1&2):43-59.

Niquette, Charles M., R. Berle Clay and Matthew M. Walters

1988 Phase III Excavations of the Kirk (46MS112) and Newman Mounds (46MS110), Gallipolis Locks and Dam Replacement Project, Mason County, West Virginia. Contract Publication Series 88-11. Cultural Resource Analysts, Inc., Lexington.

Niquette, Charles M., Albert M Pecora, Richard W. Yerkes and Kathryn J. Saul

1991 Test Excavations at the Glasgow Site: A Stratified Terminal Early and Late Archaic Site in Kanawha County, West Virginia. West Virginia Archeologist 43(1&2):27-56.

Niquette, Charles M. (editor)

1989 Phase III Investigations at the Graham Site, A Stratified Archaic/Woodland Site in the Proposed Yatesville Reservoir in Lawrence County, Kentucky. Written by J.P. Kerr, M.A. Hughes, R.B. Hand and C. M. Niquette with contribution by Dee Anne Wymer. Cultural Resource Analysts, Inc., Contract Publication Series 89-26 . Lexington, Kentucky.

1991 Excavations at the Andalex Village (15HK22) Hopkins County, Kentucky. Written by Paul P. Kreisa, R. Berle Clay, Charles M. Niquette and Gary D. Crites. Cultural Resource Analysts, Inc., Contract Publication Series 91-03. Lexington, Kentucky.

Niquette, Charles M. and Myra A. Hughes (editors)

1991 Late Woodland Archeology at the Parkline Site (46PU99), Putnam County, West Virginia. Contract Publication Series 90-93. Cultural Resource Analysis, Inc., Lexington.

Niquette, C. M and Jonathan P. Kerr (editors)

1989 Phase III Excavations at the Dow Cook Site (15LA4), in the Proposed Yatesville Reservoir, Lawrence County, Kentucky. Cultural Resource Analysts, Inc. Contract Publication Series 89-04.

Noakes, J.E. and B.L. Brandau

1974 University of Georgia Radiocarbon Dates III. Radiocarbon 16(1):131-141.

Ogden, J.G.,III and R.J. Hay

1964 Ohio Wesleyan University Natural Radiocarbon Measurements I. Radiocarbon 6:340-348.

1965 Ohio Wesleyan Universtiy Natural Radiocarbon Measurements II. Radiocarbon 7:166-173.

1967 Ohio Wesleyan University Natural Radiocarbon Measurements III. Radiocarbon 9:316-332.

1969 Ohio Wesleyan University Natural Radiocarbon Measurements IV. Radiocarbon 11(1):137-149.

1973 Ohio Wesleyan University Natural Radiocarbon Measurements V. Radiocarbon 15(2):350-366.

Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT)

1995 COL-US 30/East Liverpool, Ohio Archaeological Data Recovery Project: Summary and Interpretation of Prehistoric Components (COL-30-35.29–P.F. 541). Submitted to Ceramic Museum, Ohio Historical Soceity, East Liverpool. Submitted by Cultural Resources Unit, Office of Environmental Services, Ohio Department of Transportation, Columbus.

O’Malley, Nancy, Julie Riesenweber, and A. Gwynn Henderson

1983 Cultural Resources Reconnaissance of the Lower Cumberland River, Livingston Crittenden and Lyon Counties, Kentucky. Archaeological Report No. 75. Department of Anthropology, University of Kentucky, Lexington.

O’Steen, Lisa D., Kristen J. Gremillion and R. J. Ledbetter.

1991 Archaeolgical Testing of Five Sites in the Big Sinking Creek Oil Field, Lee County, Kentucky. Report prepared for the USDA Forest Service, Daniel Boone National Forest, Stanton, Kentucky.

Ottesen, Ann I.

1981 Report on a Preliminary Study of Prehistoric Settlement Patterns in Three Counties in Northwestern Kentucky. Ms on file, Kentucky Heritage Council, Frankfort.

Parker, S.J.

1992 Mount Pleasant II-The Sequel. Ohio Archaeologist 42(4):36-37.

Pickard, W.H. and L.A. G. Pahdopony

1995 Paradise Regained and Lost Again: The Anderson Earthwork, Ross County, Ohio (33RO551). Hopewell Archaeology: The Newsletter of Hopewell Archaeology in the Ohio River Valley 1(2):3-6.

Pickenpaugh, T.E.

1981 Radiocarbon Dates from the Brokaw Site, Part I. Ohio Archaeologist 31(4):37-41.

Pollack, David

1992 Personal communication with Charles M. Niquette.

Pollack, D. (ed)

1990 The Archaeology of Kentucky: Past Accomplishments and Future Directions. Kentucky State Historic Preservation Comprehensive Plan Report No. 1. Kentucky Heritage Council, Frankfort.

Pollack, David, Mary Lucas Powell, and Audrey Adkins

1987 Preliminary Study of Mortuary Patterns at the Larkin Site, Bourbon County, Kentucky. In Current Archaeological Research in Kentucky: Volume One, edited by David Pollack, pp. 188-204. Kentucky Heritage Council, Frankfort.

Pollack, David and Jimmy A. Railey

1987 Chambers (15ML109): An Upland Mississippian Village in Western Kentucky. Kentucky Heritage Council, Frankfort.

Pratt, G.M.

1981 The Western Basin Tradition: Changing Settlement Subsistence Adaptation in the Western Lake Erie Basin Region. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation. Department of Anthropology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio.

Prentice, Guy

1990 Mammoth Cave Archeological Inventory Project Interim Report – 1989 Investigations. National Park Service, Southeast Archeological Center, Tallahassee.

Prufer, Olaf H.

1965 The McGraw Site: A Study in Hopewellian Dynamics. Scientific Publications of the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, New Series, 3(1).

1968 Ohio Hopewell Ceramics: An Analysis of the Extant Collections. University of Michigan, Museum of Anthropology, Anthropological Papers, 23. Ann Arbor.

1975 Chesser Cave: A Late Woodland Phase in Southeastern Ohio. In Studies in Ohio Archaeology, Revised Edition. Edited by O.H. Prufer and D.H. McKenzie, pp. 1-62. The Kent State University Press, Kent, Ohio.

1981 Raven Rocks:A Specialized Late Woodland Rockshelter Occupation in Belmont County, Ohio. Kent State Research Papers in Archaeology 1. Kent State University Press, Kent, Ohio.

Prufer, Olaf H. and Ellen Andors

1975 The Morrison Village Site (33RO3): A Terminal Prehistoric Site in Ross County, Ohio. In Studies in Ohio Archaeology, Revised Edition. Edited by O.H. Prufer and D.H. McKenzie, pp. 187-229. The Kent State University Press, Kent, Ohio.

Prufer, Olaf H. and Douglas H. McKenzie

1975 Apendix: Ohio Radiocarbon Chronology. In Studies in Ohio Archaeology, Revised Edition. Edited by O.H. Prufer and D.H. McKenzie, pp. 357-368. The Kent State University Press. Kent, Ohio.

Prufer, Olaf H. and Orrin C. Shane III

1976 The Portage-Sandusky-Vermilion Region. In The Late Prehistory of th Lake Erie Drainage Basin. Edited by D.S. Brose, pp. 283-304. Scientific Papers of the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, Cleveland, Ohio.

Prufer, Olaf H., D.H. Long and D. Metzger

1987 The Archaeology of the Krill Rockshelter in Summit County, Northeastern Ohio. Kent State University Research Papers in Archaeology 8.

Purrington, Burton L.

1967 Prehistoric Horizons and Traditions in the Eastern Mountains of Kentucky. Unpublished Master’s thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Kentucky, Lexington.

Rackerby, F.

1977 Current Research-Midwest. American Antiquity 42(4):639-643.

Rafferty, Janet Elizabeth

1974 The Development of the Fort Ancient Tradition in Northern Kentucky. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Washington, Seattle.

Railey, Jimmy A.

1991 The Conley-Greene Rockshelter (15EL4): An Early Woodland Occupation in the Cumberland Plateau of Northeastern Kentucky. With contributions by Teresa W. Tune and Jack Rossen. 1991:66-101 Kentucky Heritage Council, Frankfort, Kentucky. In Studies of Kentucky Archaeology. Edited by Charles Hockensmith Kentucky Heritage Council, Frankfort, Kentucky.

Railey, Jimmy A. (editor)

1984 The Pyles Site (15Ms28): A Newtown Village in Mason County, Kentucky. Occasional Paper No. 1. William S. Webb Archaeological Society, Lexington.

Redmond, B.G.

1981 The Orleans Park Site: A Sandusky Tradition Hunting Camp in the Maumee Valley. Toledo Area Aboriginal Research Bulletin10:1-26.

1983 The Gunn-Eberle 2 Site: A Younge Phase Extractive Camp in the Mid Maumee River Valley of Northwestern Ohio. Toledo Area Aboriginal Research Bulletin 12:1-35.

1984 The Doctor’s Site (33LU11): Younge Phase Cultural Dynamics in the Western Lake Erie Drainage Basin. Unpublished MA and ED Thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Toledo. Toledo, Ohio.

Richards, E. and O.C. Shane III

1974 Tuscarawas County’s Kline Mound. Ohio Archaeologist 24(3):4-8.

Riggs, Rodney E.

1986 New Stratigraphic Sequence from the Lower Little Miami Valley. West Virginia Archeologist 38(2):1-21.

Riordan, Robert V.

1982 The Pollock Works: Report of the 1981 Field Season. Submitted by Laboratory of Anthropology, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio. Submitted to Greene County Recreation and Parks Department. Xenia, Ohio.

1984 The Pollock Works: Report on the 1982 and 1983 Field Seasons. Laboratory of Anthropology, Wright State University. Reports in Anthropology 7.

1995 A Construction Sequence for a Middle Woodland Hilltop Enclosure. Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology 20(1):62-104.

Riordan, Robert V. and D. Dewey

1980 A Minimal Fort Ancient Component from the Little Miami Valley. Ohio Archaeologist 30(4):30-33.

Robertson, James A.

1966 In Progress Report: Data Recovery at the Mouth of Seneca Site “46PD1” Potomac Range District, Pendleton County, West Virginia. Commonwealth Cultural Resources Group, Inc., Jackson.

Schenian, Pamela A. and Stephen T. Mocas

1993 The Combined Phase II/III Archeological Investigation of Site 15ML134 in the Hite Painting Barge Painting Facility at Tennessee River Mile 9.75, near Little Cypress, Marshall County, Kentucky. Report 93-6. Archology Service Center, Murray State University, Murray.

Schock, Jack M.

1975 Archaeological Survey of the Various Alternates for the Relocation of the Louisa-Fort Gray Bridge. Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green.

1977 Comments and Excavation Plan: Structures and Features at 15Hl304, A Pisgah Culture Site in Harlan County. Ms. on file, Office of State Archaeology, University of Kentucky, Lexington.

1979 Ten Carbon-14 Dates from Prehistoric Indian Sites in Southern Kentucky. Ms. on file, Office of State Archaeology, University of Kentucky, Lexington.

1984 An Archaeological Survey and Testing of the Proposed Gibson Greeting Card Plant Site in Kenton County, Kentucky. Arrow Enterprises, Bowling Green.

Schock, Jack M. and Michael Dowell

1981 The Early Woodland Period in South-Central Kentucky. Ms. on file, Department of Sociology, Anthropology, and Social Work, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green.

Schock, Jack M. and Gary S. Foster

n.d. Archaeological excavations at the Coco Cola plant site (15WA963), Ms. on file, Western KentuckyUniversity, Bowling Green.

1976 Archaeological Reconnaissance and Testing of the Proposed Relocation of U.S. 23 Boyd County, Kentucky. Department of Sociology, Anthropology, and Social Work, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green.

Schock, Jack M., William Howell, Mary L. Bowman, Richard Alvey, Dana Beasley, and Joel Stoner

1977 A Report on the Excavations of Two Archaic Sites (CH-302 and CH-307) in Christian County, Kentucky. Kentucky Archaeological Association, Bulletins 6 and 7.

Schock, Jack M. and Terry L. (Weis) Langford

1979 An Archaeological Shoreline Reconnaissance of Barren River Lake, Allen, Barren and Monroe Counties, Kentucky. Department of Sociology, Anthropology, and Social Welfare, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green.

1980 Archaeological Phase II Testing of the Proposed Carrs Site in Northern Lewis County, Kentucky. Arrow Enterprises, Bowling Green, Kentucky.

Schock, Jack M. and Terry L. (Weis) Langford (continued)

1981 Archaeological Phase II Extensive Testing in the Proposed Carrs Site in Northern Lewis County, Kentucky. Arrow Enterprises, Bowling Green, Kentucky.

Sciulli, Paul W. and Bruce W. Aument

1987 Paleodemography of the Duff Site (33LO111), Logan County, Ohio. Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology 12(1):117-144.

Sciulli, Paul W. and M.C. Mahaney

1986 Evidence of Local Biological Continuity for an Ohio Hopewell Complex Population. Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology 11(2):181-200.

Sciulli, Paul W. and K. Schneider

1985 Cranial Variation in the Terminal Archaic of Ohio. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 66:429-443.

Sciulli, Paul W., A. Alexis and A.J. Curtin

1989 Analysis of the Skeletal Sample from the Scioto County Home Site. Pennsylvania Archaeologist 59(1):37-54.

Sciulli, Paul W., M.J. Giesen and A. Erickson

1994 Report on the Skeletal Remains from Deer Creek State Park, Pickaway County, Ohio:Addition No. 1, Radiocarbon Date. Manuscript on file. Department of Anthropology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

Seeman, Mark F.

1985 The Locust Site (33MU160):The 1983 Test Excavation of a Multicomponent Workshop in East Central Ohio. Kent State Research Papers in Archaeology, 7. The Kent State University Press, Kent, Ohio.

1986 Adena “Houses” and the Implications for Early Woodland Settlement Models in the Ohio Valley. In Early Woodland Archaeology. Edited by K.B. Farnsworth and T.E. Emerson, pp. 564-580. Center for American Archaeology. Kampsville Seminars in Archaeology 2. Kampsville, Illinois.

Seeman, Mark F. and F. Soday

1980 The Russell Brown Mounds:Three Hopewell Mounds in Ross County, Ohio. Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology 5(1):73-116.

Shane, Orrin C. III

1975 The Leimbach Site:An Early Woodland Village in Lorain County, Ohio. In Studies in Ohio Archaeology, Revised Edition. Edited by O.H. Prufer and D.H. McKenzie, pp. 98-120. The Kent State University Press, Kent, Ohio.

1981 Revised Preliminary Final Report of the Mitigation of Three Prehistoric Indian Village Sites within the Right-of-Way of the Proposed Ohio State Route 2, Erie County, Ohio, Project No. RF-1115(5) ERI-2-18.38. Ohio Department of Transportation.

Sharp, William E.

1984 The Dry Run Site: An Early Fort Ancient Site in the Bluegrass. In Late Prehistoric Research in Kentucky, edited by David Pollack, Charles Hockensmith, and Thomas Sanders, pp. 105-129. Kentucky Heritage Council, Frankfort.

Shott, Michael J.

1989 Childers, Woods and Late Woodland Chronology in the Upper Ohio Valley, West Virginia Archeologist 41(2):27-40.

1990 Childers and Woods: Two Late Woodland Sites in the Upper Ohio Valley, Mason County, West Virginia. University of Kentucky Program for Cultural Resource Assessment, Archeological Report 200.

Shott, Michael J. (continued)

1992 Radiocarbon Dating as a Probabilistic Technique: The Childers Site and Late Woodland Occupation in the Ohio Valley. American Antiquity 57(2): 202-230.

Skinner, Shaune M.

1985 Preliminary Results of the 1983 Excavations at the Connett Mounds #’s 3 and 4, The Wolf Plains National Register District, Athens County, Ohio. Archaeology of Eastern North America 13:138-152.

Skinner, Shaune M. and R. Norris

1981 Archaeological Assessment of Six Sites in the Central Hocking River Valley for the Proposed Relocation of Route 33 through Athens and Hocking Counties, Ohio (HOC/ATH-14.87/16.82/00.00/00.20/03.80). Submitted by Department of Archaeology, The Ohio Historical Society, Columbus, Ohio. Submitted to Bureau of External Contracts, Ohio Department of Transportation.

Smith, Bruce D.

1985 Chenopodium Berlandieri Spp. Jonesianum: Evidence for a Hopewellian Domesticate from Ash Cave, Ohio. Southeastern Archaeology 4(2):107-133.

Smith, Trip

1993 Personal communication with Charles M. Niquette.

Stallings, Richard and Nancy Ross-Stallings

1992 Phase II Archeological Testing at 15FD55 Located near Beaver, Floyd County, Kentucky. Cultural Horizons, Inc. Submitted to Coal Mac, Inc. Contract No. 836-0229. Unpublished report on file at Office of State Archaeology, UK, Lexington, Kentucky.

1993 Personal communication with Charles M. Niquette.

Stallings, Richard, P. Thomas, T. King and K. Saul

1991 Report on Phase III Testing at Sites 33LI307, 33LI308 and 33LI309 in Licking County, Ohio. Submitted by Kemron Environmental Services, Cincinnati, Ohio. Submitted to CNG Transmission Corp., Clarksburg, West Virginia.

Stathakis, S. A.

1996 Pottery and a Radiocarbon Date from the Hoult Site (46MA36) in Marion County, West Virginia. Manuscript in possession of the author.

Stathakis, Steven A. and J.B. Harrison

1966a In Progress Report: A Phase III Mitigation of the OSB Two Site (46BX73) in Braxton County, West Virginia. Big Blue Archaeological Research, Morgantown.

1966b In Progress Report: Phase II Archaeological Testing of the Blue Three Site (46PU197) South of County Route 35/2 in Putnam County, West Virginia. Big Blue Archaeological Research, Morgantown.

1996c Phase II Archaeological Testing of the Hoult Site (46MA36) in Marion County, West Virginia. Big Blue Archaeological Research, Morgantown.

1996d Phase II Archaeological Testing of Prehistoric Resources Identified During a Phase I Survey of the Mercer / Summers Waterline Project in Mercer and Summers Counties West Virginia. Big Blue Archaeological Research, Morgantown.

Stothers, David M.

1973 Radiocarbon Dating the Culture Chronology of the Western Lake Erie Basin (Part 1). Toledo Area Aboriginal Research Society Bulletin 2(3):26-42.

1975 Radiocarbon Dating the Culture Chronology of the Western Lake Erie Basin (Part 2). Toledo Area Aboriginal Research Society Bulletin 4(2):44-48.

1983 Radiocarbon Dating the Satchell Complex in Northwestern Ohio. Ohio Archaeologist 33(2):29.

Stothers, David M. (continued)

1992 The Baker II Site and Human Occupation of the Southwestern Sandusky Bay Region. Ohio Archaeologist 42(2):4-9.

Stothers, David M. and Timothy J. Abel

1989 The Position of the “Pearson Complex” in the Late Prehistory of Northern Ohio. Archaeology of Eastern North America 17:109-142.

1990 Filling the Gap:Baker I and the Green Creek Phase in North Central Ohio. Ohio Archaeologist 40(1):36-49.

1991 Beads, Brass and Beaver: Archaeological Reflections of Protohistoric “Fire Nation” Trade and Exchange. Archaeology of Eastern North America 19:121-134.

1993 Archaeological Reflections of the Late Archaic and Early Woodland Time Periods in the Western Lake Erie Basin. Archaeology of Eastern North America 21:25-110.

Stothers, David M. and S.K. Bechtel

1987 Stable Carbon Isotope Analysis:An Inter-regional Perspective. Archaeology of Eastern North America 15:137-154.

Stothers, David M. and J.R. Graves

1984 Radiocarbon Dating the Culture Chronology of the Western Lake Erie Basin: A 1983 Synthesis. manuscript on file Laboratories of Archaeology, University of Toledo. Toledo, Ohio.

Stothers, David M. and G.M. Pratt

1981 New Perspectives on the Late Woodland Cultures of the Western Lake Erie Region. Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology 6(1):91-121.

Stothers, David M., G.M. Pratt and O.C. Shane III

1979 The Western Basin Middle Woodland: Non-Hopewellians in a Hopewellian World. In Hopewell Archaeology:The Chillicothe Conference. Edited by D.S. Brose and N. Greber, pp. 47-58. Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology Special Paper No. 3. The Kent State University Press, Kent, Ohio.

Stothers, David M., J.R. Graves, S.K. Bechtel and T.J. Abel

1994 Current Perspectives on the Late Prehistory of the Western Lake Erie Region: An Alternative to Murphy and Ferris. Archaeology of Eastern North America 22:135-196.

Stout, Charles and Christine Hensley

1991 The Human Landscape in Kentucky’s Past, Site Structure and Settlement Patterns. Kentucky Heritage Council, Frankfort, Kentucky.

Sumodi, A.J.

1974 Radioisotopes Laboratory Radiocarbon Date List I. Radiocarbon 16(2):166-177.

Sussenbach, Tom and R. Barry Lewis

1987 Archaeological Investigations in Carlisle, Hickman, and Fulton Counties, Kentucky: Site Survey and Excavations. Western Kentucky Project Report No. 4. Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois, Urbana.

Tankersley, K.

1986 The Geoarchaeology of the Madisonville Site. Paper Presented at the Midwest Archaeological Conference. Columbus, Ohio.

Trader, Patrick

1994 Personal communication

Trautman, Milton A.

1963 Isotopes, Inc., Radiocarbon Measurements III. Radiocarbon 5:62-79.

Tucek, Charles S.

1977 Radiocarbon, Ltd. Natural Radiocarbon Measurements II. Radiocarbon 19(2):255-256.

Turnbow, Christopher A.

1981 Cultural Radiocarbon Determinations of Kentucky. Occasional Papers in Anthropology No. 3. Department of Anthropology, University of Kentucky, Lexington.

Turnbow, Christopher A., Cynthia E. Jobe, and Nancy O’Malley

1983 Archaeological Excavations of the Goolman, DeVary, and Stone Sites in Clark County, Kentucky. Archaeological Report No. 78. Department of Anthropology, University of Kentucky, Lexington.

Turnbow, Christopher A. and William E. Sharp

1988 Muir: An Early Fort Ancient Site in the Inner Bluegrass. Archaeological Report No. 165. Program for Cultural Resource Assessment, University of Kentucky, Lexington.

Valastro, Jr., S. et al.

1980 University of Texas at Austin Radiocarbon Dates XIV. Radiocarbon 22(4):1090-1115.

Vickery, Kent D.

1980 Preliminary Definition of Archaic “Study Units” in Southwestern Ohio. Paper prepared for the State Archaeological Preservation Plan Meeting, Ohio Historic Preservation Office, The Ohio Historical Society Columbus, Ohio, 25 April 1980.

Vietzen, R.

1973 The Riker Site of Tuscarawas County. Sugar Creek Valley Chapter, Archaeological Society of Ohio.

Vento, Frank J., James M. Adovasio, and J. Donahue

1979 Excavations at Dameron Rockshelter (15Jo23a), Johnson County. Report on file, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntington District Office, Huntington, West Virginia.

Wall, Robert D.

1994 Phase III Archaeological Data Recovery Sub-Mound Component at Cotiga Mound 46Mo1, Mingo County, West Virginia. Prepared for West Virginia Department of Transportation, Division of Highways, Charleston.

Watson, Patty Jo

1969 The Prehistory of Salts Cave, Kentucky. Reports of Investigations No. 16. Illinois State Museum, Springfield.

1992 Personal communication

Watson, Patty Jo (editor)

1974 Archaeology of Mammoth Cave. Academic Press, New York.

Webb, William S.

1941 The Morgan Stone Mound, Site 15, Bath County, Kentucky. Reports in Anthropology and Archaeology 5(3). University of Kentucky, Lexington.

1950 The Carlson Annis Mound. Reports in Anthropology and Archaeology 7(4):267-354. University of Kentucky, Lexington.

Webb, William S. and Raymond S. Baby

1957 The Adena People No.2. Ohio Historical Society, Columbus.

Webb, William S. and John B. Elliott

1942 The Robbins Mounds, Site Be3 and Be14, Boone County, Kentucky. Reports in Anthropology and Archaeology 5(5), University of Kentucky, Lexington.

Wesler, Kit W.

1985 Archaeological Excavations at Wickliffe Mounds, 15BA4: Mound A, 1984. Wickliffe Mounds Research Center Report No. 1. Murray State University, Wickliffe, Kentucky.

1987 Posthole Testing and Pattern Recognition Revisited: The Moore House, Ballard County, Kentucky. Proceedings Symposium on Ohio Valley Urban and Historic Archaeology, Vol. 5, 1987.

1990 Personal communication with David Pollack. In The archaeology of Kentucky: past accomplishments and future directions. Kentucky State Historic Preservation Comprehensive Plan Report No. 1. Edited by David Pollack, Kentucky Heritage Council, Frankfort.

1992 Personal communication with Charles Niquette.

West Virginia Archeological Society

1990 Fieldnotes 31(4)

1991 Fieldnotes 32(3)

Whitman, J.

1977 Kohl Mound, A Hopewellian Mound in Tuscarawas County. Ohio Archaeologist 27(3):4-8.

Wilkins, Gary R.

1981 The Miller Site(46-Ja-55): A Fort Ancient Component. West Virginia Archeologist 31:2-19.

Wolforth

1989 Archeological Investigations at the Running Slough Site, Fulton County, Kentucky. University of Illinois, Department of Anthropology, Western Kentucky Project No. 9 Urbana.

Wymer, Dee A.

1987 The Middle Woodland-Late Woodland Interface in Central Ohio:Subsistence Continuity and Cultural Change. In Emergent Horticultural Economies of the Eastern Woodlands. Edited by W.F. Keegan, pp. 201-216. Occasional Paper 7. Center for Archaeological Investigation. Southern Illinois University, Carbondale.

1989 Salvage Excavations at the NuWay Construction Site (33LI267), Licking County, Ohio. Licking County Archaeology and Landmarks Society:Cultural Resource Management Report 3.

Yerkes, Richard W., Editor

1993 Current Research-Great Lakes Region. American Antiquity 58(3):573-578.

Youse, Hillis J.

1981 Excavation of the Ennis Mound (46-Ka-108). West Virginia Archeologist, 32: 38-40.

1986 The Marmet Bluffs – Archeological Site 46KA7. West Virginia Archeologist, 38(1): 42-43.

Zakucia, John A.

1974 New Radiocarbon Dates from the Upper Ohio Valley. Appendix to the Boarts Site:A Lithic Workshop in Lawrence County, Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Archaeologist 44(1-2):31-112.

Zalesky, J.

1986 Archaeological Investigations at the Vaughn Site (33CU65) CUVA. Midwest Archaeological Center. Occasional Studies in Anthropology 18. Lincoln, Nebraska

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2 comments on “The Kentucky, Ohio and West Virginia Radiocarbon Database
  1. Kate says:

    Hello,

    The link to the online version to the database is broken. I’d love to link to it.

    Thanks.

    • Jason Anderson says:

      Hi Kate. Thanks for your interest the Radiocarbon Database page and bringing our attention to the broken links on that page. I think I have repaired all the links on the page.

      Best,
      Jason

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